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Pre-AP And AP Chemistry

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Some Fundamental Definitions in Chemistry
  • The Properties of Matter and its Three States
  • Measurement in Scientific Study: SI Units in Chemistry Measurements
  • Uncertainty in Measurement:
    • Significant Figures and Determining Them
    • Significant Figures in Calculations
    • Precision, Accuracy, and Instrument Calibration
Three Major Classes of Reactions in Solution
  • Role of Water as a Solvent:
    • Precipitation Reactions
    • Acid – Base (A-B) Reactions
    • Oxidation – Reduction (Redox) Reactions
Basic Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure
  • Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Wave and Particle Nature of Light
  • Atomic Spectra for Single Electron Atom: Bohr Model and Energy States of the Hydrogen Atom, Spectrum Analysis
Quantum Mechanical Model of Many – Electron Atoms
  • Atomic Orbitals: Probable Location of the Electron, Quantum Numbers of Atomic
Chemical Bonding Model
  • Atomic Properties and Chemical Bonds: The Three Types of Chemical Bonding, Lewis Dot Structures to Depict Bonded Atoms
  • Ionic Bonding: Electronegativity, Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments, Ion Electron Configuration and Sizes, Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds, Lattice Energy, Periodic Trends in Lattice Energy, How the Model Explains the Ionic Bonding Properties
  • Covalent Bonding: Formation of Covalent Bond, Covalent Bond Energy and Bond Length, How the Covalent Bonding Model Explains the Properties of Covalently Bonded Substances, Lewis Structures of Covalently Bonded Atoms
  • Electronegativity and Bond Polarity Revisited: Electronegativity, Polar Covalent Bonds and Bond Polarity, Partial Ionic Character of Polar Covalent Bonds, Bonding Across a Period
  • Bond Energy, Chemical Change and ΔHᵒrxn
Theories of Covalent Bonding
  • Valence Bond (VB) Theory and Orbital Hybridization
  • Modes of Orbital Overlap And the Types of Covalent Bonds
  • Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory and Electron Delocalization
Properties of the Liquid State: Surface Tension, Capillarity and Viscosity
  • Unique Properties of Water
  • Properties of Solutions: Types of Solutions: Intermolecular Forces and Solubility, Intermolecular Forces in Solution, Liquid Solutions and the Role of Molecular Polarity, Gas Solutions and Solid Solutions
The Main-Group Elements: Applying Principles of Bonding and Structure
  • Hydrogen, the Simplest Atom
  • Group 1A(1): The Alkali Metals
  • Group 2A(2): The Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Group 3A(13): The Boron Family
  • Group 4A(14) - The Carbon Family
  • Group 5A(15): The Nitrogen and Phosphorous Family
  • Group 6A(16): The Oxygen Family
  • Group 7A(17): The Halogens
  • Group 8A(18): The Noble Gases
Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions:
  • The Equilibrium State and the Equilibrium Constant
  • The Reaction Quotient and the Equilibrium Constant
  • Expressing Equilibria with Pressure Terms
  • How to Solve Equilibrium Problems
  • Reaction Direction in Mixtures of Reactants and Products: Determining Reaction
  • Reaction Conditions and the Equilibrium State: Le Châtelier’s Principle
    • The Effects of Change in Concentration, Pressure (Volume), Temperature
    • Catalysts
Ionic Equilibria in Aqueous Systems:
  • Equilibria of Acid-Base Buffer Systems
  • Acid-Base Titration Curves
  • Equilibria of Slightly Soluble Ionic Compounds
  • Equilibria Involving Complex Ions
Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and the Direction of Chemical Reactions
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Predicting Spontaneous Change
  • Calculating the Change in Entropy of a Reaction
  • Entropy, Free Energy, and Work
  • Free Energy, Equilibrium, and Reaction Direction
  • Basic Review
    • Interconverting Moles, Molar Mass and Number of Entities in a Chemical Formula
    • Determining Mass Percent from the Chemical Formula
    • Determining Empirical and Molecular Formulas
    • Calculating Amounts of Reactants and Products from Balanced Equations: Limiting Reactants, Theoretical, Actual and Percent Yields
    • Fundamentals of Solution Stoichiometry: Molarity, Molality, Moles to Mass number Conversions in Solutions, Dilutions, Stoichiometry of Reactions in Solutions
Gases, Their Stoichiometry and Kinetic Molecular Theory
  • Basic Characteristics of Gases
  • Gas Pressure and Its Measurement
  • Gas Laws and Reaction Stoichiometry
  • Kinetic Molecular Theory and Explanation of Ideal Gas
  • Effusion and Diffusion
  • Real Gases: Deviations from Ideality and Van der Waal’s Equations
Wave – Particle Duality of Atom
  • The Wave Nature of Electrons and Particle Nature of Photons
  • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity
  • Characteristics of Many Electron Atoms: Electron Spin Quantum Number, Pauli Exclusion Principle, Electrostatic Effects and Energy Level Splittings
  • Quantum Mechanical Model and Periodic Table: Aufbau Principle, Building Up Periods 1, 2 and 3, Electron Configurations Within Groups, Building up Period 4 – the First d-Orbital Transition Series, General Principles of Electron Configurations, Unusual Configurations – Transitions and Inner Transition Elements
  • Periodic Trends in Three Key Atomic Properties: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Electron Affinity
  • Atomic Structure and Chemical Reactivity – Trends in Metallic Behavior and Properties of Monatomic Ions
Shapes of Molecules
  • Lewis Structures of Molecules and Ions: Octet Rule and its Exceptions, Resonance and Delocalized Electron Pair Bonding
  • Formal Charge and its Role in Selecting the Most Important Resonant Structure
  • VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) Theory and Molecular Shapes
  • Electron Group Arrangements and Molecular Shapes: Molecular Shapes with One Central Atom Plus: Two Electron Groups (Linear), Three Electron Groups (Trigonal Planar), Four Electron Groups (Tetrahedral), Five Electron Groups (Trigonal Bipyramidal), Six Electron Groups (Octahedral)
  • Molecular Shapes with More Than One Central Atom
  • Molecular Shapes and Molecular Polarity
Intermolecular Forces (IMFs): Liquids, Solids and Phase Changes
  • Overview of Physical States and Phase Changes
  • Quantitative Aspects of Phase Changes
  • Types of IMFs: Ion-Dipole Forces, Dipole-Dipole Forces, Hydrogen Bond, Polarizability and Charge Induced Dipole – Dipole Forces, Dispersion (London) Forces
The Solid State: Structure, Properties, and Bonding, Structural Features of Solids
Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical reactions
  • Factors That Influence Reaction Rate
  • Expressing the Reaction Rate: Average, Instantaneous, and Initial Reaction Rates; Expressing Rate in Terms of Reactant and Product, Concentrations
  • The Rate Law and Its Components
  • Integrated Rate Laws
  • The Effects of Temperature, Concentration and Temperature on Reaction Rate
  • Reaction Mechanisms - Steps in the Overall Reaction: Elementary Reactions and Molecularity, The Rate-Determining Step of a Reaction Mechanism
  • Catalysis
Acid-Base Equilibria:
  • Acids and Bases in Water:
    • Arrhenius Acid-Base Definition
    • Variation in Acid Strength; The Acid-Dissociation Constant (Ka);
    • Classifying the Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
  • Auto-ionization of Water and the pH Scale
    • The Equilibrium Nature of Autoionization of Water (Kw)
    • Expressing the Hydronium Ion Concentration: The pH Scale
  • Proton Transfer and the Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Definition
    • The Conjugate Acid-Base Pair
    • Relative Acid-Base Strength and the Net Direction of Reaction
  • Weak-Acid Equilibria
  • Weak Bases and Their Relation to Weak Acids
  • Molecular Properties and Acid Strength
  • Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions
  • Electron-Pair Donation and the Lewis Acid-Base Definition
Thermochemistry - 1: Energy Flow and Chemical Change
  • Forms of Energy and Their Interconversion Between the The System and Its Surroundings
  • Enthalpy: Heats of Reaction and Chemical Change
  • Calorimetry: Laboratory Measurement of Heats of Reaction
  • Stoichiometry of Thermochemical Equations
  • Hess’s Law of Heat Summation
  • Standard Heats of Reaction (ΔHᵒrxn)
Electrochemistry: Chemical Change and Electrical Work
  • Redox Reactions and Electrochemical Cells
  • Voltaic Cells: Using Spontaneous Reactions to Generate Electrical Energy
  • Cell Potential: Output of a Voltaic Cell
  • Free Energy and Electrical Work
  • Electrochemical Processes in Batteries
  • Corrosion: A Case of Environmental Electrochemistry
  • Electrolytic Cells: Using Electrical Energy to Drive Nonspontaneous Reactions  
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