**AP Physics 1, 2 and C**

**Offering AP Physics Tutoring in Sugar Land, TX**

**AP PHYSICS 1: SYLLABUS**

**Kinematics of Linear Motion**

- Scalars and Vectors
- Components of a vector
- Vector Addition and Subtraction

- One-Dimensional Motion
- Displacement vs Distance
- Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration
- x-t, v-t, a-t graphs
- Equations of motion in 1-d for constant acceleration with Applications
- Bodies in Free Fall

- Two-Dimensional Motion
- Displacement vs Distance in 2-d
- Equations of motion in 2-d
- Projectile Motion
- Relative Velocity

**Dynamics of Linear Motion**

- Forces in Newton's Laws and Applications
- Weight vs Mass
- Newton's First Law and Applications
- Vector nature of Newton's Second Law and Applications
- Types of Forces
- Force of Gravity / Gravitational Force
- Normal Force
- Static and Kinetic Frictional Force
- Tension Force

- Free Body diagrams
- Equilibrium Application of Forces: Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
- Non-equilibrium Application of Forces
- Newton's Third Law and Applications

**Rotational Dynamics**

- Rolling Motion
- Vector nature of Angular Variables
- Angular Momentum
- Conservation of Angular Momentum
- Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects
- Rigid Objects in Rotational and Translational Equilibrium
- Center of Gravity
- Newton's Second Law for Rotation about a fixed Axis
- Moment of Inertia and Parallel Axis Theorem
- Rotational Work and Energy
- Mechanical Waves and Sound
- Nature of Waves
- Periodic Waves
- Speed of a wave on a string

**Mathematical description of a wave**

- Nature of Sound
- Speed of Sound
- Sound Intensity
- Decibels
- Doppler Effect
- Principle of Linear Superposition
- Constructive and destructive Interference of Sound Waves
- Diffraction
- Beats
- Transverse Standing Waves
- Longitudinal Standing Waves
- Complex Sound Waves
- N.B: Students must have strong conceptual background of the topics, and must be able to apply the concepts to real world problems including societal issues and technological innovations

**Kinematics and Dynamics of Circular Motion**

- Uniform Circular Motion (Horizontal Plane)
- Angular velocity, Frequency, Time Period
- Tangential acceleration and Angular or Centripetal acceleration
- Kinematic equations for Circular motion
- Centripetal force
- Application of Centripetal Forces
- Banked curves on roads
- Satellites in circular orbits
- Centrifuges, Apparent weightlessness and Artificial Gravity

- Non-uniform (vertical) Circular Motion

**Work and Energy**

- Work done by a constant force
- Work - Energy Theorem
- Kinetic Energy
- Gravitational Potential Energy
- Conservative vs Non-conservative Forces
- Conservation of Mechanical energy
- Work-Energy Theorem with Non-Conservative Forces
- Power
- Work done by a variable Force

**Linear Momentum**

- Linear Momentum and Impulse
- Impulse - Momentum Theorem
- Conservation of Linear Momentum
- Collisions in 1 and 2- dimensions
- Center of Mass

**Simple Harmonic Motion**

- Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion
- Reference Circle in Simple Harmonic Motion
- Pendulum
- Damped Harmonic Motion
- Driven Harmonic Motion and Resonance
- Elasticity, Stress, Strain and Hooke's Law

**Electrostatics**

- Electric Charge
- Charged objects and Electric Force
- Conductors and Insulators
- Law of Conservation of Electric Charge
- Charging by contact and by induction
- Coulomb's Law
- Electric Field
- Electric Field Lines

**Electric Current, Ohm's Law and related circuits**

- Electromotive Force and Current
- Ohm's Law
- Resistance and Resistivity
- Series and Parallel Wiring
- Internal resistance
- Electric Power

**AP PHYSICS: 2 SYLLABUS**

**Electrostatics**

- Electric Force
- Electric Field
- Electric Field inside a conductor and Gauss's Law
- Potential Energy
- Electric Potential Difference (EPD)
- EPD created by point charges
- Equipotential surfaces and their relation to Electric Fields
- Capacitors and Dielectrics
- Charging and discharging of capacitors

**Electric Circuits including Kirchoff's Laws**

- Electric Resistance
- Ohm's Law
- DC Circuits with resistors only
- Kirchoff's Laws
- Series, Parallel, and Series-Parallel Circuits
- Capacitance
- R-C Circuits
- Series and parallel combination circuits containing resistors and capacitors

**Fluids**

- Density
- Atmospheric and Fluid Pressure
- Pascal's Principle
- Buoyant Force
- Archimedes Principle
- Flow Rate
- Equation of Continuity
- Bernoulli's Principle

**Geometrical and Physical Optics**

- Reflection
- Image formation by flat and curved Mirrors
- Refraction and Snell's Law
- Image formation by thin lenses
- Interference and Diffraction
- Double slit, single slit, and Diffraction grating interference
- Thin film interference

**Magnetism and Electromagnetic Induction**

- Magnetic Field
- Magnetic Force on a Charged Particle
- Motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field
- Mass Spectrometer
- Magnetic Force on a Current-carrying Wire
- Torque on a current-carrying coil
- Magnetic Fields produced by currents
- Ampere's Law
- Induced EMF and induced current
- Motional EMF
- Magnetic Flux
- EM Induction: Faraday's Law
- Lenz's Law
- Application of EM induction to sound reproduction
- Electric Generator
- Mutual inductance and Self Inductance
- Transformers

**Thermodynamics**

- Kinetic Theory
- Ideal Gases
- First Law of Thermodynamics
- Thermodynamics and P-V Diagrams
- Heat Engines
- Carnot Cycle
- Thermodynamic Efficiency
- Second Law of Thermodynamics

**Modern Physics**

- Quantum Physics, Atomic and Nuclear Physics
- Atoms, Atomic Mass, Mass no and Isotopes
- Atomic Energy Levels
- Absorption and Emission Spectra
- Models of Light: Wave and Particle
- Photo Electric Effect
- de Broglie Wavelength
- Wave function Graphs
- Mass-Energy Equivalence
- Radioactive Decay: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma decays
- Half-life
- Conservation of Nucleon number: Fission and Fusion

**AP PHYSICS: C SYLLABUS**

Section 1 - Mechanics

Section 1 - Mechanics

**Kinematics in 1- and 2- Dimensions (1-d and 2-d)**

- Vectors
- Vector Algebra
- Components of Vectors
- Coordinate Systems
- Displacement vectors
- Velocity and Acceleration vectors
- Calculus – based understanding of Kinematics Equations
- Problems based on vector Kinematics Equations
- Graphs of Position vs Time (x – t), Velocity vs Time (v-t) and Acceleration vs Time (a – t) in 1-d
- Interconversions among x-t, v-t and a-t graphs
- Use of vectors in solving 2-d motion problems
- Use vector addition, subtraction and resolution to determine components of displacement and velocity vectors along mutually perpendicular axes
- Determine the net change in displacement and velocity vectors for a particle relative to another
- Given functions x(t) and y(t), determine the components, magnitude and direction of the particle’s velocity and acceleration as functions of time.
- Projectile motion in gravitational field: Expressions for the horizontal and vertical components of velocity and position as functions of time, final velocity.
- Analyze the motion of a projectile that has an arbitrary initial velocity.

**Work, Energy, and Power**

- Work and Work – Energy Theorem (WET)
- Work as area under the F-x curve. Use graphical and integration techniques to evaluate work from F-x curves
- Evaluate work from scalar products of the force and the displacement vectors

- Forces and Potential energy using calculus definitions
- Conservation of Energy
- Power

**Systems of Particles, Linear Momentum (Vector Approach)**

- Center of Mass
- Impulse and Momentum
- Conservation of Linear Momentum
- Collisions in 1-d and 2-d

**Circular Momentum and Rotation (Vector Approach)**

- Uniform circular motion
- Torque and Rotational Statics
- Rotational kinematics and Dynamics
- Angular Momentum and its Conservation

**Newton's Laws of Motion**

- Static Equilibrium (First Law): Analyze the physics of particle at rest or moving at uniform velocity under several concurrent forces
- Dynamics of a single particle (Second law): a) Determine velocity change for a particle that experiences a constant force or a force F(t) that is a known function of time
- Given the change in a velocity vector in a plane over a specified time interval, determine the average force that caused the velocity change
- Draw free body diagrams (FBDs) showing all real forces that act on an object that is subject to forces such as gravity, tension, or contact forces. Analyze the forces vectorially and calculate kinematic quantities for these situations.
- Given the acceleration vector that is constant over time, determine the component(s) of the forces that cause the acceleration
- Friction: Motion on horizontal and inclined surfaces, when will objects start to slip, static vs kinetic friction

- Drag forces:
- Terminal velocity of an object moving vertically down under the influence of gravity and a velocity-dependent drag force
- Graphically display the acceleration, velocity and displacement of a particle falling freely under gravity with a velocity-dependent drag force starting from rest, or, or, projected with a given magnitude of the initial velocity
- Set up the differential equation for the velocity of the object under velocity-dependent drag forces and solve it using the method of separation of variables to determine the velocity as a function of time. Derive an expression for the acceleration of the object under these conditions.

- Systems of two or more objects (Third law)
- For a given system, identify the force pairs and the objects on which they act, and quantify the force pairs
- Analyze the force of contact between two objects that accelerate together horizontally or vertically, or slide across one another
- Two object system connected by a massless string passing over a massless pulley
- Set up and solve systems of equations generated by applying newton’s laws applied to two or more objects

**Oscillations and Gravitation (Vectors and Calculus Based)**

- Dynamics of Simple Harmonic Motion and its Energy Relationships
- Mass on a Spring
- Pendulum and other oscillations
- Newton’s Law of Gravity
- Circular and General orbits of Planets and Satellites

### Section 2 - Electricity and Magnetism

Both Vector based and Calculus based approaches will be used throughout

**Both Vector based and Calculus based approaches will be used throughout**

- Charge and Coulomb’s law
- Electric Field and Electric Potential (Point charges)
- Gauss’s Law
- Fields and potentials of other charge distributions

**Conductors, Capacitors, and Dielectrics**

- Electrostatics of Conductors
- Capacitors: Capacitance, Parallel plate, Spherical and Cylindrical capacitors
- Dielectrics

**Electromagnetism**

- Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s and Lenz’s law
- Inductance, Analysis of LR and LC circuits
- Maxwell’s equations

**Electric Circuits**

- Current, Resistance, Power
- Steady state DC circuits with batteries and resistors only
- Ohm’s law
- Kirchoff’s law

- Capacitors in Circuits (RC circuits)
- Steady State
- Transients in RC circuits

**Magnetic Fields**

- Forces on moving charges in magnetic fields
- Forces on Current-carrying wires in Magnetic Fields
- Magnetic Fields of long current-carrying wires
- Biot-Savart law and Ampere’s law

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